Public Lab Research note

An accessible browser-based decoder for NOAA images

by sashae | May 03, 2022 14:04 03 May 14:04 | #30701 | #30701

**Research note in progress** This is the first draft of a set of observations and documentation about decoding, demodulating and processing NOAA satellite images that resulted in a new browser based decoder called open-weather apt. You can access the decoder at: Last edited 18th July 2022


NOAA satellites sense earth's surface using six visible light and infrared sensors. The data from these sensors is combined to produce images.

The satellites encode or modulate image data into a 2400 Hz signal. This signal is transmitted to earth via a radio wave between 137 and 138 MHz depending upon which NOAA satellite is received. The format of the transmitted signal is called Automatic Picture Transmission (APT).

Using an antenna and software defined radio, you can record the signal transmitted by a NOAA satellite. See this DIY Satellite Ground Station guide for an accessible set of instructions. Your recording, in the form of a WAV file, can be decoded into an image using different methods.

Absolute Value, Cosine and Hilbert/FFT are three methods for decoding or demodulating the WAV file into an image. They operate in slightly different ways, and so will produce different images. Histogram Equalisation increases the contrast of the image.

open-weather apt emerged from a desire to understand the process of decoding APT audio recordings into NOAA satellite images, and a need for an accessible online decoder for new practitioners during open-weather DIY Satellite Ground Station workshops.

open-weather apt is forked from Thatcher's APT 3000. It is a collaboration between open-weather, Bill Liles NQ6Z and Grayson Earle.

How does a sound become an image?

Recording a NOAA satellite signal using software defined radio produces an audio file. How does this audio file translate into an image?

Let's first take a look at the format of APT transmission: what are NOAA satellites sending to earth? image description

APT Transmission Format. Source: NOAA Users Guide

The APT format includes:

  • two channels of visual data, A and B
  • two sync signals: sync A and sync B
  • telemetry data
  • space data/ minute markers

One line of information in the APT format (including sync signals, telemetry, space data and channel A/B images) takes 0.5 seconds. This means two full lines of data are transmitted per second.

👂 How does a NOAA signal sound? Does it have a rhythm or a tone? Can you distinguish any repeated elements or a structure? Here is a sample: Take a moment to have a listen.

After listening, you may observe that there is a clear rhythm in the audio. There is a characteristic 'tick tock' at regular intervals. There is also a high pitched 'ring' or tone that sounds a lot like this.

What are you hearing? The audio file contains three important frequencies: 2400 Hz, 1040 Hz and 832 Hz. These frequencies correspond to specific parts of the APT format. All other frequencies in the audio file are noise caused by your radio environment, your ground station setup or your body. Here are the uses of the three frequencies:

  • 2400 Hz - pixel values (in grayscale) for channel A and B images
  • 1040 Hz - channel A sync signal
  • 832 Hz - channel B sync signal

We can visualise these frequencies to get a better understanding of how they carry data. The image below shows the APT signal in a section of an audio recording. (Note: an absolute value function has been applied so that we are only seeing positive values of the signal. A wave normally includes positive and negative values).

The APT signal is represented by the blue line. The x axis is samples of data. The units of the y axis depend on the programme used to visualise the signal. From 34000 to 34600 samples on the x axis, the 'level' or amplitude of the signal changes, yet the frequency remains the same. The different amplitudes can be mapped onto pixel values in grayscale, where black corresponds to a very low value (e.g. 0) and white is a high value.

However, it is not as easy as mapping every value of a wave amplitude onto a pixel value. Depending on the sample rate in which the audio file was recorded, there will be a different number of samples per second. Common audio sample rates are 48000, 44100 and 11025 samples per second.

Yet the APT diagram tells us that the satellite sends only 909 'words' in one line of Channel A, and 909 'words' in one line of Channel B. For NOAA, 'words' means units of information, or pixels. This means that there are only 909 pixels in each line of Channel A and Channel B respectively. One whole line of data, including telemetry, syncs and space data, has 2080 pixels. To determine what the values of these pixels are, it is necessary to downsample the audio file from its original sample rate. open-weather apt accepts audio files at 11025 samples / second, and downsamples this information to 4160 samples per second (2080 pixels per line in 0.5 seconds x 2 = 4160 pixels per second).

After 34600 samples on the x axis, the frequency and amplitude changes: there are seven distinct spikes in the blue line. These seven spikes are the channel A sync signal. This signifies the start of a new line of data in the APT format.

image description

Visualisation of an APT signal. Source: Bill Liles

The clarity of the satellite image is partly dependent on signal strength. As signal strength decreases, the image quality decreases because it becomes more difficult to distinguish the 2400 Hz amplitude levels to determine the pixel values. When the signal is weaker, the signal to noise ratio is also worse, so determining the correct amplitude might be impossible or not consistent. Also, a weak signal or a noisy file can result in a missed channel A sync signal which may produce a slanted image like this:

image description

Raw satellite image with a missed first sync. Source: Floren Noel via open-weather apt

open-weather apt was designed with first-time satellite signal decoders in mind. Unlike other satellite signal decoders that do not specify where they search for the first 'sync' in the audio file, open-weather apt allows you to modify the number of seconds in which the programme searches for the first sync. This means that the programme can more easily find the first sync even when the beginning of the audio file is very noisy.

Demodulation Methods

There are several different ways to demodulate the APT signal into an image. The diagram below represents these methods.

The green line is the message signal (we can think of it as the original data transmitted by the satellite). The red line is the carrier signal, and the purple line shows the modulated signal (where the carrier signal has been modulated by the message signal). The demodulation process should retrieve something that is as close to the original message signal as possible.

The three bottom purple lines show the signal demodulated using ABS (Absolute Value); the signal demodulated using the Hilbert FFT method; and finally, the signal demodulated using the law of Cosines.

🔎 Which method do you think is the most precise?

image description

Comparing AM demodulation methods. Source: Bill Liles

Absolute Value

This is the simplest and quickest way to decode an audio recording of an APT signal into an image.

A wave, for example a 2400 Hz sine wave, has negative and positive values. If we take the absolute value of all the points in the wave, we end up with only positive values in a time series. After applying a downsampler, we can derive the data for the 'words' or pixels in the NOAA satellite image.

Hilbert FFT

This is the most processing-heavy, but most precise, way to decode an audio recording of an APT signal into an image.

We have a time series of samples. First, we turn that time series into what are known as I/Q signals.

What are I/Q signals? A sine wave can be decomposed into, or synthesized from, two amplitude-modulated sinusoids that are offset in phase by one-quarter cycle (90 degrees or π/2 radians). These are In-phase or Quadrature Components (I/Q signals):

There are two ways to do this. One is to use a FIR (Finite Impulse Response filter) with a specific set of coefficients known as a Hilbert Transform. This filter produces the Q time series to go along with the I time series. The other way involves taking the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the input time series, set all the negative frequencies of the transform to zero and then take the inverse Fourier Transform. This is the method that is used in open-weather apt.

Given an I/Q time series, the AM demodulation is the absolute value of each pair of points defined as: abs(I_i, Q_i) = sqrt( I_i * I_i + Q_i * Q_i) where I_i and Q_i are the ith samples of the I/Q time series.


💪 This section is in progress...

This demodulation method is sourced from Martin Bernardi's code for the open-source satellite signal decoding programme NOAA APT 1.3.1.

To generate each output sample, we use the current input sample, the previous input sample and the carrier frequency. Note: the sine and cosine functions are computed in radians and not degrees. Theta is 2π times the carrier frequency in Hz divided by the sample rate in samples/sec.

The method uses the following equation:

image description

The equation for demodulating a signal using the Law of Cosines. Source: Martin Bernardi

Histogram Equalisation

Raw NOAA satellite images can often look very gray and uniform. Histogram equalisation increases the contrast of images so that more detail can potentially be observed, for example the difference between land and sea, or small features in clouds.

Histogram equalization in open-weather apt accomplishes this by effectively spreading out the pixel brightness values from gray towards black and white.

image description

Histograms of an image before and after equalisation. Source: Wikipedia.

More coming soon...

I did this Help out by offering feedback!

People who did this (0)

None yet. Be the first to post one!


How does it compare to wxtoimg? The picture sure looks good.

Is this a question? Click here to post it to the Questions page.

Hello @Ag8n ! A link to the decoder will be added before the end of the week. This research note will be expanded to include information on the process of creating the decoder, how it works, and different aspects of NOAA signal processing. It won't have as many features as WXtoImg, but it should produce high quality raw images. More soon!

This looks great!! Thank you! Is this also a way around all the different platforms ( windows, linux, etc.)?

Is this a question? Click here to post it to the Questions page.

Yes that's the idea! In DIY Satellite Ground Station workshops we often found it difficult to navigate different operating systems on the fly. APT 3000, the only other browser based decoder to our knowledge, proved glitchy and returns low resolution raw images. open-weather apt will be accessible to all running a browser and will output full resolution images created using different demodulation methods. It will also be possible to adjust when the decoder looks for the first sync in order to work with WAV files whose beginnings are quite noisy (which is frequently the case for beginners).

Reply to this comment...

Fantastic! Is there a link to the online decoder? Would love to play around with it.

Is this a question? Click here to post it to the Questions page.

Hi @Liz! Thanks for asking. Yes a link is coming soon. This research note will also be expanded significantly in the coming weeks.

Reply to this comment...

Sashae- Caught your note on Rtl-Sdr about progress with the demodulator. Will it still use SDR# and what plug ins are recommended? Thank you.

Is this a question? Click here to post it to the Questions page.

Hi! Are you referring to this post?

Unfortunately that wasn't from me- it was another Sasha!

However to answer your query, open-weather apt (see link above) does not require any plug-ins as it is purely browser based, and can accept WAV files captured with SDR#, CubicSDR and most other SDR systems.

Is this a question? Click here to post it to the Questions page.

Yes, that's the one! Sorry about that! Ok. So playing with SDR ++ shouldn't cause any problems. Thank you!!

Reply to this comment...

Think I got it right this time. The write up in rtl-sdr for Open-Weather was quite impressive. Congrats!

Thank you! yes so nice to see it shared there :)

Reply to this comment...

Hey Sashae....I'm getting a little nervous. Using windows11. And hear a lot about problems with Zadig. Do you know of any work arounds? Thanks,


Is this a question? Click here to post it to the Questions page.

Reply to this comment...

May have found the problem. According to some websites, it's the version of windows11. If it upgrade s to 22H2, you are ok. If it's another version, oh well. Let you know how it works out!!

Hi Ag8n, yes please do update! That would be very useful to know.

Reply to this comment...

No such luck. The problem is apparently Windows11 based. The best reference, so far, is in "reddit rtlsdr" from 5 days ago by YalekW. It gives a good description, but no good solution if you are a Windows11 user.

Reply to this comment...

The answer was basically to go back to Windows 10!

Reply to this comment...

Yeah, my software ended with Fortran, many years ago. But if you get into the discussions, following the post, of how windows11 decided that they were going to use only " cleaned up " drivers. That is ( I think)the discussion of " wrappers". Which leaves older drivers, like rtlsdr, in a bad place. If someone else can help fill in, it would be appreciated.

Reply to this comment...

This one is weird. If you go to Do a search on "guide book" for "zadig". The third hit, Under Quick Start Guide,item number 8,gives instructions on how to use zadig in windows10 or 11. Usually, these items are listed by date. The item above it is listed as August 6,2015.

Reply to this comment...

Ok. Found another discussion. It's on radioreference. The address is: Apparently, there has been an issue for a while. Maybe I just won the lottery when the system upgraded to the newest version. Oh well.

Reply to this comment...

Be sure to read page 2 of the radio reference post listed above.

Reply to this comment...

Login to comment.