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Introduction to Particulate Matter

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**Particulate Matter (PM) is airborne dust and particle pollution that is small enough to be suspended in the air. Particulate Matter can be solid particles, liquid droplets, or conglomerations of particles and liquids. Based on size alone, small particles can become lodged in the lungs or even enter the bloodstream. Some non-toxic materials, such as silica, can be carcinogenic at small size. There are four parts to determining what particles are in the air and how dangerous they are: particle size, particle concentration, particle type, and particle source, discussed below.

Identifying dust sources can be difficult, but through monitoring, [advocacy,] and behavior change we can make the world a much less dusty place. Natural sources of dust have been overtaken by human-generated particles from roads, agriculture, construction, and mining which now overshadow wind erosion, volcanoes, pollen, and forest fires as sources of particle pollution chart), citation: EPA/600/R-95/115). According to the CDC, a 10% reduction in fine particles could prevent 13,000 deaths annually in the US.

Particle Size

PM2-5_5.jpg

Image credit: CDC

While particles' health effects vary depending on what they're made of, small particles share hazards in common. Size is therefore a frequent method of differentiating particulate matter. Particles are measured in microns (short for micrometers, or millionths of a meter, μm), but when talking about particle sizes we use shorthand for size ranges:

Non-respirable PM & Nuisance Dust

50-25μm in diameter is roughly the maximum size for particles suspended in air, and anything this size or smaller is considered PM. Particles this size are often classified as ’nuisance dust,' and are not considered 'respirable.' They can exacerbate respiratory distress but are too large to become lodged in healthy lungs, with a few notable exceptions such as sharp asbestos fibers.

Respirable PM

Respirable particulate matter refers to particles that can become lodged in healthy lungs. This size varies from particle to particle. For example, while 10μm is generally considered respirable, silica is considered respirable below 4μm in diameter.

Coarse PM Course particulate matter refers to the largest fraction of respirable particles. In regulatory monitoring it can refer to either particles nominally 10μm in diameter (designated PM10 by the EPA), or the fraction of dust between 2.5μm and 10μm in diameter (designated PM10-2.5).

Fine PM

Ultrafine PM

Nanoparticles

read about capturing and measuring particulate matter in PM Monitoring

Particle Concentration

Particle concentration is the density of particles in the air. This is usually expressed as mass per volume, i.e. micrograms or milligrams per cubic meter, expressed μg/m3 or mg/m3.

Read more on identifying particle concentration Data Collection & Monitoring.

Particle Type

This can be conducted with a microscope for crystals, and using lab techniques for other types of particles. Mass spectrometry and x-ray spectrometry may also be used.

Particle Source

Usually directional and time-stamped data from multiple points are needed to extrapolate source, along with an understanding of particle type.

Researchers speak of two types of emissions that have a blurry line between them, 'process stream' emissions and 'fugitive emissions.' Process stream emissions are inherent to a process, like ash from a fire, and fugitive emissions are ancillary, like the dust kicked up bringing wood to a fire [EPA 3-2].

Read More in PM Monitoring Regulations


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