Infragram
activity:infragram

The Infragram project brings together a range of different efforts to make Do-It-Yourself plant health comparisons possible with infrared photography. Use the web-based app at [Infragram.org](https://infragram.org/) to process your imagery. This project was made possible with support from Google and the [AREN Project at NASA](https://www.globe.gov/web/aren-project/). ## Uses Vineyards, large farms, and NASA all use near-infrared photography for assessment, usually by mounting expensive sensors on airplanes and satellites. Infrared analysis is used for a variety of things, but most focus on assessing plant health, such as: * to assess crops and the efficacy of #agriculture practices * better #soil management (reducing #fertilizer, soil treatments) * in #wetlands analysis [![Screenshot_2017-10-18_at_11.59.57_AM.png](https://publiclab.org/system/images/photos/000/021/972/large/Screenshot_2017-10-18_at_11.59.57_AM.png)](https://publiclab.org/system/images/photos/000/021/972/original/Screenshot_2017-10-18_at_11.59.57_AM.png) Just as cell phone video has become instrumental in accountability today, we aim to democratize and improve reporting about environmental impacts. **** ## Getting started To start to do your own infrared analysis project, you'll need: 1. **[Photos](#Getting+images)**: A way to take near-infrared photos AND matching regular visible light photos from the same angle (in a single camera or two matched cameras) 2. [A **question** you'd like to answer](#Study+design) -- look through these templates for how to design your analysis 3. **[Software](#Software)** for processing and analysing your photos 4. **[Analysis](#Analysis)** -- tips and support to interpret and understand what your images are telling you To get a kit with this already set up on an SD card and/or Raspberry Pi camera, see: * [Infragram Pi Camera Kit](https://store.publiclab.org/products/infragram-pi-camera) * [Pre-flashed SD cards for Raspberry Pi cameras](https://store.publiclab.org/products/pi-builder-cards) [notes:grid:activity:pi-camera-setup] **** ## How it works ### Background In 2014, we launched an early version of this project on Kickstarter, and the video is a good overview of the project, although we've come a long way since: _The [Infragram Kickstarter](https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/publiclab/infragram-the-infrared-photography-project) video, a great introduction to the project._ **** [![68747470733a2f2f7075626c69636c61622e6f72672f73797374656d2f696d616765732f70686f746f732f3030302f3034352f3436382f6c617267652f72676e2d73706c69742e706e67.png](/i/45512)](/i/45512?s=o) ## Infragram starter kits The [Public Lab Store](http://store.publiclab.org) offers a range of Do-It-Yourself kits to convert cameras for infrared photography, as well as ready-made cameras like the [Infragram Point & Shoot camera](/wiki/infragram-point-shoot): > [Get a kit to start](https://store.publiclab.org/collections/diy-infrared-photography) Also see [Getting images](#Getting+images), below. **** ## Getting images To start, you'll need **near-infrared images** and regular **visible light images** of the same scene -- or an image which combines these in different color channels. See the below White Balance section for example images. There are sources of #remote-sensing imagery from satellites and planes you can use, but the Infragram project is about making and using low-cost converted cameras to take our own images. There are both **single camera** and **dual camera** ways of doing this, and each has pros and cons. [Get a kit here](https://store.publiclab.org/collections/diy-infrared-photography) or learn about converting a camera here: > [Infrared Camera Conversion](/wiki/infrared-camera-conversion) **** ### White balance We've learned that careful white balancing of your converted Infragram camera is essential for good NDVI images. Learn how [in this short video](/notes/warren/08-15-2013/white-balancing-a-canon-camera-for-infragram-photography) and [read in depth on the topic in research by Chris Fastie](/notes/cfastie/06-17-2013/white-balance). There is also a wiki page on the subject at http://publiclab.org/wiki/infrablue-white-balance Here are samples of well-white-balanced images: _Left: pale blue from a RED filter; Right: pale yellow from a BLUE filter. Images by @mathew and [Eclectis students](https://publiclab.org/n/9372)_ [![](/system/images/photos/000/018/533/thumb/Rosco_26_filtered.JPG)(/system/images/photos/000/018/533/original/Rosco_26_filtered.JPG) [![](https://i.publiclab.org/system/images/photos/000/001/647/thumb/IMG_0025.JPG)](https://i.publiclab.org/system/images/photos/000/001/647/original/IMG_0025.JPG) If you're using an [Infragram Point & Shoot](/wiki/infragram-point-shoot) (aka Mobius Action Cam), see [this page for a guide on setting the white balance of that camera](/wiki/infragram-point-shoot#Activities). [![Screen_Shot_2022-03-15_at_12.24.43_PM.png](/i/45515)](/i/45515?s=o) **** ### Filters _Should you use a **RED** or **BLUE** filter?_ See [Infragram filters](/wiki/infragram-filters) for more on different filters and how well they work. Early research by Public Lab contributors led to a blue filter technique for making Infragram cameras. But recent research on PublicLab.org has shown that red filters work better -- and on a wider range of cameras. Blue filters did not work on most CMOS cameras, especially cheaper webcams. Public Lab kits now ship with the red **Rosco #19 "Fire" filter**. **** ## Conversion types There are three major ways to produce multispectral "infragram" images: * Two-camera - one near-infrared camera and one normal RGB camera * Single camera w/ red filter - replacing blue with infrared * Single camera w/ blue filter - replacing red with infrared Since these are a hard to keep track of, here's a diagram to show the three main types (you can [edit the diagram here](https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1hIR68D9sW16_A2eYAi4QJCrWagG4j89BTB7m15Ubom4/edit#slide=id.g3cb9c89f54_0_0)): [![infragram-types.png](/i/25365)](/i/25365) **** ### Comparing plant health An important limitation of most DIY techniques is that we are using uncalibrated cameras, and so the analysis works best when we compare two vegetated areas under the same conditions (light, angle, time of day) rather than just take a photo of a single region. That is, the DIY approach is based on relative, or comparative, uses -- you can't learn a lot without a point of comparison. [questions:ndvi-comparison] An easy way to do a comparison is: 1. compare two areas (with the same type of plants) within a single photograph 2. compare two photographs with the same camera settings and lighting conditions (angle, brightness, color), of the same plants [illustration] Learn more at [Comparing Plant Health](/wiki/comparing-plant-health) **** ## Software Doing [NDVI analysis](/wiki/ndvi) on plants requires post-processing both infrared and visible images (or a combined image -- see [Getting images](#Getting+images)) into a composite image, using the NDVI equation (or another like it). This can be done with a variety of software; see this page for more: > [Infrared software](/wiki/infrared-software) **** ## Questions Post questions or troubleshooting requests here, for example about: * making sure your camera is working (color balance, exposure, light source) * what to compare against (see study design) * different lighting conditions or angles [questions:infragram] **** ## Activities [activities:infragram] **** ## Challenges We're working to refine and improve DIY infrared photography on a number of fronts; here, take a look at the leading challenges we're hoping to solve, and post your own. For now, we're using the Q&A feature, so just click "Ask a question" to post your own challenge. Be sure to add: * constraints: expense, complexity * goals: performance, use cases [questions:infragram-challenges] **** ## Give or get help Here are some resources to get help converting or using your Infragram camera. Keep in mind that we are a peer driven community and we encourage everyone to give as well as receive assistance and support! [questions:infragram] When describing your question or answer, please include details of the equipment and process you are using [as described here for Infragram photos](http://publiclab.org/notes/cfastie/07-17-2013/infrablue-minutiae) . Also see our older FAQ here: https://publiclab.org/wiki/infragram-faq **** ![dorn](https://i.publiclab.org/system/images/photos/000/000/342/medium/dorn) ![kites](https://i.publiclab.org/system/images/photos/000/000/343/medium/kites) DIY Filter Pack: This is just a piece of "superblue" filter which you can use to turn your webcam or cheap point-and-shoot into an infrared camera. The filter allows you to take an infrared photo in the "red" channel of your camera, and a visible image in the "blue" channel. The Public Lab kit comes with a white balance card and instructions on how install your filter -- it's pretty easy! Infragram Point & Shoot: This is a straightforward, if basic, point-and-shoot camera which we're getting a factory to pre-convert with infrablue filters: you can simply take photos as you normally would, then upload them to our free and open-source web app to quickly and easily get a variety of composite images and analyses (the site is currently in beta with minimal initial features). **** _"We're excited that Public Laboratory is developing a low-cost infrared camera which will help us **track the success of wetland restoration projects in the Gulf Region--as well as help us track pollution.** The Gulf Restoration Network has been using the aerial monitoring techniques that Public Lab developed, so having the infrared camera available to put on the balloon and kite rig will only expand the applications of that technology as well as add value to airplane monitoring flights that help us watchdog the oil industry in the Gulf."_ -- [Scott Eustis](http://publiclab.org/profile/eustatic), M.S., Gulf Restoration Network ### More information The Public Lab community has been building up a knowledge base in DIY infrared imaging for years. Read more about the [history of this project here](http://publiclab.org/wiki/near-infrared-camera-history) ![dual](https://s3.amazonaws.com/ksr/assets/000/581/547/defb8db0662fd4b54a515b7457a89976_large.png?1368219190) ![melange](https://s3.amazonaws.com/ksr/assets/000/581/552/6aa9b7a67ec720c4b8b3388b5582891e_large.png?1368219243) **** ### Infragram instructions and graphics _Digital files for the filter pack envelope (including logo) and instructions:_ infrablue-filter-envelope-color.pdf infragram-instructions-0.3.pdf infragram-instructions-back-0.2.pdf _Sketchup model for the "filter switch" graphic:_ filter-switch.skp ### Datasheets Datasheet for Infragram Webcam: infragram-webcam-new-old-diagram.pdf Focal length of the camera:3.27mm. Chip sensor size for the camera: Sensor:ov2643,SIZE:1/4" Spec_of_JDEPC-OV04_Ver_1.01.pdf Module_XJD__OEM_-_final_version_-_July_30-2013.xlsx HK-7035AS-582-2-M7_Model_(95955).pdf...


Author Comment Last activity Moderation
warren "Ok, I'm sorry this is taking so long. I found some command line instructions for Mac OS, the basic issue is that the partition is in a format (ext ..." | Read more » almost 5 years ago
molangmuir10 "I'm OS Mojave 10.14, this is what comes up on the SD card... " | Read more » almost 5 years ago
silentsairam "I could see only 1 partition on my Laptop. OS: Windows 7. Will test with Linux tomorrow and update. " | Read more » almost 5 years ago
warren "Oh hm..... maybe there's an issue with the drive format! Ugh... i think there should be 2 partitions that show up. But maybe your computer can't re..." | Read more » almost 5 years ago
molangmuir10 "Hi @silentsairam I did all of those steps but it didn't work! I think @warren is right - although it is strange that when I test ran it I could dow..." | Read more » almost 5 years ago
silentsairam "Hi @warren When I recently tried connecting to Camera Module with RPi, I shows the below message as in image. Is the fault in Camera module or sho..." | Read more » almost 5 years ago
silentsairam "Hi @warren @molangmuir10 Connect to the Network as the same with Rpi. Click on Download Images and Videos from SD card. I used San Disk 16GB A1 ..." | Read more » almost 5 years ago
warren "Hi, sorry I missed this one too, but glad it worked! I've usually seen it take about five minutes so I was surprised to hear 30m. But also, we copi..." | Read more » almost 5 years ago
warren "Hi! Ok not sure what's happening but it's some issue with the camera software we chose. I'll try to take a look later today but the easiest thing a..." | Read more » almost 5 years ago
molangmuir10 "Hey @warren! I did a test using the r-pi to take photos in my room, downloaded the images and it worked fine. I then did a mapping with a school la..." | Read more » almost 5 years ago
warren " Hi! Just noting that this software stack I mentioned above is configured to run headlessly and to send video over WiFi, including NDVI processing:..." | Read more » about 5 years ago
molangmuir10 "Hi Bronwen - I posted you the below question because it wasn't working but then after about half an hour the pi wifi connected!! So all good :) Des..." | Read more » about 5 years ago
molangmuir10 " Hi Bronwen, great! I will try this afternoon and let you know! " | Read more » about 5 years ago
Bronwen " Hi @molangmuir10 -- yes! You can get to the software from this page here: https://publiclab.org/wiki/pi-builder Let us know how it goes! FYI, som..." | Read more » about 5 years ago
molangmuir10 " This is great! And so much simpler. I didn't realise they were 'plug-and-play'! I tried to program and configure mine, so I over-wrote your progra..." | Read more » about 5 years ago
baungaard " This is so cool :smiley: " | Read more » about 5 years ago
warren " @molangmuir10 @silentsairam @kayrufty check this out! " | Read more » about 5 years ago
petter_mansson1 "I use a combination of PILLOW, numpy and Matplotlib. You can also find all my camera settings in https://github.com/PiddePannkauga/ndviMachine. It ..." | Read more » about 5 years ago
jmdavison12 " Thanks Petter, I'm using a headless Raspberry Pi so I don't have the option of writing a GUI application (without networking the stream and severe..." | Read more » about 5 years ago
petter_mansson1 "Here is my repo for the GUI application. Run the script on your raspberry pi. Think you need to install a Tkinter library. At first I only created ..." | Read more » about 5 years ago
petter_mansson1 " I wrote a simple GUI application using TK for Python with 2 sliders to control AWB gains. That was my approach to finding a good balance. I don't ..." | Read more » about 5 years ago
jmdavison12 " " | Read more » about 5 years ago
jmdavison12 " Hi Peter, What red/blue gains did you use for these photos (I assume you are using picamera)? I know that lighting conditions vary and white bala..." | Read more » about 5 years ago
jmdavison12 "Dang, nice! Didn't realize this was possible with the blue filter that ships with the piNoIR. I can't believe how clear these results are. I'm als..." | Read more » about 5 years ago