Infragram
activity:infragram

The Infragram project brings together a range of different efforts to make Do-It-Yourself plant health comparisons possible with infrared photography. Use the web-based app at [Infragram.org](https://infragram.org/) to process your imagery. This project was made possible with support from Google and the [AREN Project at NASA](https://www.globe.gov/web/aren-project/). ## Uses Vineyards, large farms, and NASA all use near-infrared photography for assessment, usually by mounting expensive sensors on airplanes and satellites. Infrared analysis is used for a variety of things, but most focus on assessing plant health, such as: * to assess crops and the efficacy of #agriculture practices * better #soil management (reducing #fertilizer, soil treatments) * in #wetlands analysis [![Screenshot_2017-10-18_at_11.59.57_AM.png](https://publiclab.org/system/images/photos/000/021/972/large/Screenshot_2017-10-18_at_11.59.57_AM.png)](https://publiclab.org/system/images/photos/000/021/972/original/Screenshot_2017-10-18_at_11.59.57_AM.png) Just as cell phone video has become instrumental in accountability today, we aim to democratize and improve reporting about environmental impacts. **** ## Getting started To start to do your own infrared analysis project, you'll need: 1. **[Photos](#Getting+images)**: A way to take near-infrared photos AND matching regular visible light photos from the same angle (in a single camera or two matched cameras) 2. [A **question** you'd like to answer](#Study+design) -- look through these templates for how to design your analysis 3. **[Software](#Software)** for processing and analysing your photos 4. **[Analysis](#Analysis)** -- tips and support to interpret and understand what your images are telling you To get a kit with this already set up on an SD card and/or Raspberry Pi camera, see: * [Infragram Pi Camera Kit](https://store.publiclab.org/products/infragram-pi-camera) * [Pre-flashed SD cards for Raspberry Pi cameras](https://store.publiclab.org/products/pi-builder-cards) [notes:grid:activity:pi-camera-setup] **** ## How it works ### Background In 2014, we launched an early version of this project on Kickstarter, and the video is a good overview of the project, although we've come a long way since: _The [Infragram Kickstarter](https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/publiclab/infragram-the-infrared-photography-project) video, a great introduction to the project._ **** [![68747470733a2f2f7075626c69636c61622e6f72672f73797374656d2f696d616765732f70686f746f732f3030302f3034352f3436382f6c617267652f72676e2d73706c69742e706e67.png](/i/45512)](/i/45512?s=o) ## Infragram starter kits The [Public Lab Store](http://store.publiclab.org) offers a range of Do-It-Yourself kits to convert cameras for infrared photography, as well as ready-made cameras like the [Infragram Point & Shoot camera](/wiki/infragram-point-shoot): > [Get a kit to start](https://store.publiclab.org/collections/diy-infrared-photography) Also see [Getting images](#Getting+images), below. **** ## Getting images To start, you'll need **near-infrared images** and regular **visible light images** of the same scene -- or an image which combines these in different color channels. See the below White Balance section for example images. There are sources of #remote-sensing imagery from satellites and planes you can use, but the Infragram project is about making and using low-cost converted cameras to take our own images. There are both **single camera** and **dual camera** ways of doing this, and each has pros and cons. [Get a kit here](https://store.publiclab.org/collections/diy-infrared-photography) or learn about converting a camera here: > [Infrared Camera Conversion](/wiki/infrared-camera-conversion) **** ### White balance We've learned that careful white balancing of your converted Infragram camera is essential for good NDVI images. Learn how [in this short video](/notes/warren/08-15-2013/white-balancing-a-canon-camera-for-infragram-photography) and [read in depth on the topic in research by Chris Fastie](/notes/cfastie/06-17-2013/white-balance). There is also a wiki page on the subject at http://publiclab.org/wiki/infrablue-white-balance Here are samples of well-white-balanced images: _Left: pale blue from a RED filter; Right: pale yellow from a BLUE filter. Images by @mathew and [Eclectis students](https://publiclab.org/n/9372)_ [![](/system/images/photos/000/018/533/thumb/Rosco_26_filtered.JPG)(/system/images/photos/000/018/533/original/Rosco_26_filtered.JPG) [![](https://i.publiclab.org/system/images/photos/000/001/647/thumb/IMG_0025.JPG)](https://i.publiclab.org/system/images/photos/000/001/647/original/IMG_0025.JPG) If you're using an [Infragram Point & Shoot](/wiki/infragram-point-shoot) (aka Mobius Action Cam), see [this page for a guide on setting the white balance of that camera](/wiki/infragram-point-shoot#Activities). [![Screen_Shot_2022-03-15_at_12.24.43_PM.png](/i/45515)](/i/45515?s=o) **** ### Filters _Should you use a **RED** or **BLUE** filter?_ See [Infragram filters](/wiki/infragram-filters) for more on different filters and how well they work. Early research by Public Lab contributors led to a blue filter technique for making Infragram cameras. But recent research on PublicLab.org has shown that red filters work better -- and on a wider range of cameras. Blue filters did not work on most CMOS cameras, especially cheaper webcams. Public Lab kits now ship with the red **Rosco #19 "Fire" filter**. **** ## Conversion types There are three major ways to produce multispectral "infragram" images: * Two-camera - one near-infrared camera and one normal RGB camera * Single camera w/ red filter - replacing blue with infrared * Single camera w/ blue filter - replacing red with infrared Since these are a hard to keep track of, here's a diagram to show the three main types (you can [edit the diagram here](https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1hIR68D9sW16_A2eYAi4QJCrWagG4j89BTB7m15Ubom4/edit#slide=id.g3cb9c89f54_0_0)): [![infragram-types.png](/i/25365)](/i/25365) **** ### Comparing plant health An important limitation of most DIY techniques is that we are using uncalibrated cameras, and so the analysis works best when we compare two vegetated areas under the same conditions (light, angle, time of day) rather than just take a photo of a single region. That is, the DIY approach is based on relative, or comparative, uses -- you can't learn a lot without a point of comparison. [questions:ndvi-comparison] An easy way to do a comparison is: 1. compare two areas (with the same type of plants) within a single photograph 2. compare two photographs with the same camera settings and lighting conditions (angle, brightness, color), of the same plants [illustration] Learn more at [Comparing Plant Health](/wiki/comparing-plant-health) **** ## Software Doing [NDVI analysis](/wiki/ndvi) on plants requires post-processing both infrared and visible images (or a combined image -- see [Getting images](#Getting+images)) into a composite image, using the NDVI equation (or another like it). This can be done with a variety of software; see this page for more: > [Infrared software](/wiki/infrared-software) **** ## Questions Post questions or troubleshooting requests here, for example about: * making sure your camera is working (color balance, exposure, light source) * what to compare against (see study design) * different lighting conditions or angles [questions:infragram] **** ## Activities [activities:infragram] **** ## Challenges We're working to refine and improve DIY infrared photography on a number of fronts; here, take a look at the leading challenges we're hoping to solve, and post your own. For now, we're using the Q&A feature, so just click "Ask a question" to post your own challenge. Be sure to add: * constraints: expense, complexity * goals: performance, use cases [questions:infragram-challenges] **** ## Give or get help Here are some resources to get help converting or using your Infragram camera. Keep in mind that we are a peer driven community and we encourage everyone to give as well as receive assistance and support! [questions:infragram] When describing your question or answer, please include details of the equipment and process you are using [as described here for Infragram photos](http://publiclab.org/notes/cfastie/07-17-2013/infrablue-minutiae) . Also see our older FAQ here: https://publiclab.org/wiki/infragram-faq **** ![dorn](https://i.publiclab.org/system/images/photos/000/000/342/medium/dorn) ![kites](https://i.publiclab.org/system/images/photos/000/000/343/medium/kites) DIY Filter Pack: This is just a piece of "superblue" filter which you can use to turn your webcam or cheap point-and-shoot into an infrared camera. The filter allows you to take an infrared photo in the "red" channel of your camera, and a visible image in the "blue" channel. The Public Lab kit comes with a white balance card and instructions on how install your filter -- it's pretty easy! Infragram Point & Shoot: This is a straightforward, if basic, point-and-shoot camera which we're getting a factory to pre-convert with infrablue filters: you can simply take photos as you normally would, then upload them to our free and open-source web app to quickly and easily get a variety of composite images and analyses (the site is currently in beta with minimal initial features). **** _"We're excited that Public Laboratory is developing a low-cost infrared camera which will help us **track the success of wetland restoration projects in the Gulf Region--as well as help us track pollution.** The Gulf Restoration Network has been using the aerial monitoring techniques that Public Lab developed, so having the infrared camera available to put on the balloon and kite rig will only expand the applications of that technology as well as add value to airplane monitoring flights that help us watchdog the oil industry in the Gulf."_ -- [Scott Eustis](http://publiclab.org/profile/eustatic), M.S., Gulf Restoration Network ### More information The Public Lab community has been building up a knowledge base in DIY infrared imaging for years. Read more about the [history of this project here](http://publiclab.org/wiki/near-infrared-camera-history) ![dual](https://s3.amazonaws.com/ksr/assets/000/581/547/defb8db0662fd4b54a515b7457a89976_large.png?1368219190) ![melange](https://s3.amazonaws.com/ksr/assets/000/581/552/6aa9b7a67ec720c4b8b3388b5582891e_large.png?1368219243) **** ### Infragram instructions and graphics _Digital files for the filter pack envelope (including logo) and instructions:_ infrablue-filter-envelope-color.pdf infragram-instructions-0.3.pdf infragram-instructions-back-0.2.pdf _Sketchup model for the "filter switch" graphic:_ filter-switch.skp ### Datasheets Datasheet for Infragram Webcam: infragram-webcam-new-old-diagram.pdf Focal length of the camera:3.27mm. Chip sensor size for the camera: Sensor:ov2643,SIZE:1/4" Spec_of_JDEPC-OV04_Ver_1.01.pdf Module_XJD__OEM_-_final_version_-_July_30-2013.xlsx HK-7035AS-582-2-M7_Model_(95955).pdf...


Author Comment Last activity Moderation
WhiteRabbit "Would acetone or some other solvent dissolve the glue holding on the IR blocker so that it can be removed without shattering it? Is it known what ..." | Read more » over 9 years ago
cfastie "The only filter I tried that worked was Wratten 25A. Two blue filters worked poorly. @mathew has tried Rosco #19 which seems to work well. I don't ..." | Read more » over 9 years ago
WhiteRabbit "" I can try different filters to learn how to make the best plant health images." Which filters have you found that make the best plant health ima..." | Read more » over 9 years ago
warren "Here is Mathew's PDF on conversion, as well, for reference: mobius_instructions.pdf " | Read more » almost 10 years ago
cfastie "Hi Kendrick90, You're right that single camera systems have their limitations. The Wratten 25A camera produces a very good NIR channel (blue) with ..." | Read more » almost 10 years ago
kendrick90 "I initially found this site while searching for automatic insect recognition because I'm interested in the potential for robots to help us by shoot..." | Read more » almost 10 years ago
mathew "Thanks Chris! " | Read more » almost 10 years ago
cfastie "That nice windows program for Mobius is not official, just written by the isoprop guy. I guess nobody has done it yet for the Mac. Here is the con..." | Read more » almost 10 years ago
mathew "I've been manually editing the config file-- the only thing I can't figure out is how to turn on the custom white balance. " | Read more » almost 10 years ago
warren "Shouldn't it be possible to copy the text config file from Chris's mobius and post it here so Mathew can use it? " | Read more » almost 10 years ago
mathew "Well, I guess that pretty much settles it on the red. I went out flying with only the blue on friday, and haven't processed the results yet. I wa..." | Read more » almost 10 years ago
cfastie "Jeff, all of the photos that day were in bright sunshine under cloudless sky. You can see the afternoon progress in the four panel NDVI for Mobius ..." | Read more » almost 10 years ago
warren "Indeed, that last Mobius with a 2007 did not work well for me either. What were the lighting conditions? I tried to stretch the histogram a bit, bu..." | Read more » almost 10 years ago
cfastie "Tom, Yes, meaningless was not the best word choice. The real surprise was that the non-plants consistently had NDVI values higher than plants. That..." | Read more » almost 10 years ago
ttaylor "Chris, re the Mobius Rosco2007 image, some comments and questions. By "meaningless" do you mean that the pine board looks so much like the living p..." | Read more » almost 10 years ago
mathew "Ok-- I have the ROSCO Fire filter and several others in my swatch booklet. Going to run tests tomorrow, and try digging into the white balance pre..." | Read more » almost 10 years ago
mathew "Nice writeup, thanks Chris. I like the tip on focusing, hadn't tried that. " | Read more » about 10 years ago
fnok "Sounds like a great application for NIR imagery. I think you may even benefit by putting your camera back up in the air --> balloon mapping or a..." | Read more » about 10 years ago
warren "There's been some discussion of blurry images and how to fix this to some degree in the mailing lists: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!searchin/p..." | Read more » about 10 years ago
drkatnz "Sure, have provided a zip file link with all the source, and posted some pictures into the article itself. Not sure why the focus sucked on the di..." | Read more » about 10 years ago
warren "Wow, fantastic. Could you share some of the source images, maybe in a zip file, or samples from your sets of the paddock photos? " | Read more » about 10 years ago
cfastie "Infragram immersion helmets are the best thing ever. Imagine one with multiple cameras: one zoomed in, one with a different filter, two side facing..." | Read more » over 10 years ago
MicheleTobias "I may have figured out why the images have such a reduced resolution. Some of the settings in the stitching program I used limited the size of the..." | Read more » almost 13 years ago
MicheleTobias "The jury's still out on the final flying height, but I think it was about 30 meters (so really low). There is no good imagery to use to reference ..." | Read more » almost 13 years ago