ExifTool by Phil Harvey is the industry standard command line tool to extract or modify the information in the EXIF header of image files:
ExifTool is a platform-independent Perl library plus a command-line application for reading, writing and editing meta information in a wide variety of files. ExifTool supports many different metadata formats including EXIF, GPS, IPTC, XMP, JFIF, GeoTIFF, ICC Profile, Photoshop IRB, FlashPix, AFCP and ID3, as well as the maker notes of many digital cameras by Canon, Casio, DJI, FLIR, FujiFilm, GE, HP, JVC/Victor, Kodak, Leaf, Minolta/Konica-Minolta, Motorola, Nikon, Nintendo, Olympus/Epson, Panasonic/Leica, Pentax/Asahi, Phase One, Reconyx, Ricoh, Samsung, Sanyo, Sigma/Foveon and Sony.
GeoSetter is a good freeware Windows program which provides a nice GUI and uses ExifTool to do all things related to GPS data and photos. The last program update was August 18, 2017.
RoboGeo is a commercial Windows program ($80) which uses timestamps to add GPS data to the EXIF header of photo files. The last program update was 2012.