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Public Lab Research note


Toxic City: Health Impacts of Chemicals Emitted in the South Durban Area

by kgradow1 | November 06, 2020 18:39 06 Nov 18:39 | #24940 | #24940

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Adapted from SDCEA's Toxic City Booklet and generously shared with permission.

SDCEA has compiled a list of companies in the south Durban area and the chemical emissions each of these companies are involved in. Accompanied with these chemicals, is a list of acute (short term) and chronic (long term) health impacts associated with each of the chemicals. The health effects listing was reviewed by Professor Rajen Naidoo of the Discipline of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of KwaZuluNatal.

This book aims to educate and create public awareness around what chemicals are being put into our air, by these companies, and essentially hold them accountable for the multitude of health issues the residents of the south Durban basin face on a daily basis. NOTE: In reposting this material, PL has sorted by industry type

Packaging and Paper Products

Textile Manufacturing

Chemical Manufacturing

Automotive Production

Shipping

Oil and Gas

General Manufacturing

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Packaging and Paper Products

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Mondi Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Ammonia Irritate and burn skin, mouth, throad, lungs, and eyes Blindness, lung damage, or death
Nitrate Irritability, dizziness, vomiting, diarrhoea and laboured breathing Brain damage, potential cancer causing chemical or death
Calcium Red and irritated eyes Overactive thyroid gland and potential bone cancer
Magnesium Coughing, headache, weakness, fever, diarrhoea, red and painful eyes Respiratory distress and low blood pressure
Potassium Coughing, sore throat, blisters on skin Severe burning of eyes loss of vision and shock
Sodium Coughing, sore throat, blisters on skin and headaches High blood pressure, heart failure, and stroke
Sulphate Dehydration, diarrhoea, coughing, sore throat, red and painful eyes Intestinal discomfort and burning
Aluminium Irritation of eyes and skin, headaches, cough and fever Scarring of lungs
Cadmium Affects blood pressure, memory, and attention span Cancerous and harmful to lungs, bones, and kidneys
Iron Dizziness, headache, red and painful skin and eyes Arthritis, liver damage and heart problems
Lead Nausea, vomiting and headaches Fatigue, weakness and memory loss
Manganese Coughing, red and painful eyes, headache and constipation Aggressiveness, hallucinations, difficulty with concentration and memory loss
Flourine Red and painful skin and eyes, coughing, sore throat, and shortness of breath Severe burning of skin and eyes and frostbite
Nitrogen oxides Coughing and wheezing Respiratory problems, inflammation fo the lining of the lungs and bronchitis
Sulphur dioide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
Carbon monoxide Hadache, nausea, rapid breathing, weakness, exhaustion, dizziness & confusion Severe oxygen deficiency, irreversible braina nd heart damage
Promethium Nausea, voming, and sickness Radioactive substance
Arsenic Cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, red skin & eyes, diarrhoea, nausea & vomiting Unconsciousness, burning of throat and chest
Calcium carbonate Nausea, vomiting, constipation, and flatulence Loss of appetite, varying of calcium and phosphate levels in the boddy
Zinc Dry skin, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain Lowered immunity and loss of appetite
Sulphuric acid Red and painful skin and eyes, sore throat, cough and abdominal pain Burning of eyes and skin, respiratory tract and digestive system
Mercury Coughing, diarrhoea, shortness of breath, vomiting and red skin Fever, muscle weakness, and impaired speech
Ammonia Irritate and burn skin, mouth, throat, lungs, and eyes Blindness, lung damage, or death
Dioxides Coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath Irritation of airways

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Textile Manufacturing

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Dyefin Textiles Ltd Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Hydrogen peroxide Sore throat, cough, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, red and painful eyes & skin Burning of skin and eyes and blurred vision
Caustic soda Nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, blistering of skin and diarrhoea Burning of skin, permanent scarring of eyes and blurred vision
Acetic acid Coughing, sore throat, headache, dizziness, shortness of breath and diarrhoea Burning and blistering of skin, loss of vision, shock and collapse
Sodium sulphate Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhoea Fatigue and possible heart failure
Lime-unslaked Weakness and joint pain Unconsciousness, burning of eyes and skin
Sodium hypochloride Coughing, sore throat, red and painful skin and eyes, vomiting and diarrhoea Burning of eyes, skin, respiratory tract and digestive system
Sulphuric acid Red and painful skin and eyes, sore throat, coughing and abdominal pain Black or dark-coloured stool and staining of teeth
Ferrous sulphate Diarrhoea, stomach cramps and upset stomach Unconsciousness, severe burning of eyes and skin and loss of vision
Formic acide Sore throat, red and painful skin and eyes, vomiting, diarrhoea, coughing and shortness of breath
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks

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Chemical Manufacturing

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HOSAF Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Carbon monoxide Headache, nausea, rapid breathing, weakness, exhaustion, dizziness and confusion. Severe oxygen deficiency, irreversible brain and heart damage
Carbon dioxide Dizziness, headache, elevated blood pressure and increased heart rate Frostbite, unconsciousness and suffocation
Volatile organic compounds Headaches, dizziness and nausea Fatigue, damage to liver, kidneys and central nervous system
Monoethylene glycol Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps Heart failure, high blood pressure and irriation to respiratory tract
Terephthalic acid Coughing, redness of eyes and skin Bronchitis and asthma attacks
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Lung disease, respiratory irritation and could possibly be cancerous
Antimony trioxide Coughing, headache, nausea, sore throat, vomiting, red and painful skin and eyes and sore throat Cancerous to humans
HOECHST SA Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
Oxygen Coughing, dizziness and sore throat Behavioural changes, irritability, anxiety and confusion
Carbon dioxide Dizziness, headache, elevated blood pressure and increased heart rate Frostbite, unconsioness and suffocation
EVONIK PEROXIDE AFRICA Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Hydrogen peroxide Sore throat, cough, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, red and painful eyes & skin Burning of skin and eyes and blurred vision
Volatile organic compounds Headaches, dizziness and nausea Fatigue, damage to liver, kidneys and central nervous system
CHEMICAL INITIATIVES Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Sulphur Coughing, sore throat, redness of skin and eyes and diarrhoea Burning of respiratory and digestive tract
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
NCP CHLORCHEM Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Sodium hypochlorite Coughing, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhoea, red and painful eyes and skin
Chlorine cylinders Wheezing, coughing, sore throat, eye and skin irritation
BAYER Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Sodium dichromate Red and painful skin and eyes, sore throat, coughing and wheezing Blurred vision, severe burning of eyes, skin and digestive tract
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
Chromium oxide Coughing, wheezing, sore throat, red and painful skin and eyes Burning of skin and eyes
Chromium trioxide Irritation of nose and throat, coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath Burning of eyes and loss of vision
NALCO CHEMSERVE Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Acrylonitrile Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, redness of eyes and skin, vomiting, weakness and skin blistering Convulsions
Acrylamide Coughing, sore throat, weakness, painful and red eyes and skin
Acrylic acid Coughing, sore throat, laboured breath, diarrhoea and shock Unconsciousness and burning of digestive and respiratory tract
Caustic soda Nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, blistering of skin and diarrhoea Burning of skin, permanent scarring of eyes and blurred vision
Ammonium chloride Coughing, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, red and painful eyes and skin
Isopropyl alcohol Irritation of skin and eyes, dizziness and nausea Low blood pressure and slowing of heartbeat
Chromium sulphate Inflammation of the skin and irritation of the lungs Asthma and skin disease
Ammonium persulfate Hives, swelling, skin inflammation Asthma and loss of consciousness
ASSOCIATED ADDITIVES Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Magnesium oxide Coughing, red and painful eyes Fatigue
Bisphenol Weight gain and vitamin D deficiency Cancer, insomnia and heart disease
Tri isocyanurate Red and painful eyes, inflammation of skin Fatigue, weakness and memory loss
Lead Nausea, vomiting and headaches
ALLIANCE PEROXIDE Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Hydrogen peroxide Sore throat, cough, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, red and painful eyes & skin Burning to skin and eyes and blurred vision
Methane Headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting Suffocation and frostbite
Ethane Dizziness, vomiting and nausea Suffocation and frostbite
Ethylene Drowsiness and headaches Unconsciousness
Hydrogen Headaches, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting and dizziness Unconsciousness, depression and suffocation
Carbon monoxide Headache, nausea, rapid breathing, weakness, exhaustion, dizziness and confusion. Severe oxygen deficiency, irreversible brain and heart damage.
Sulphur Coughing, sore throat, redness of skin and eyes and diarrhoea Severe oxygen deficiency, irreversible brain and heart damage.
Nitrogen Painful eyes, burning of eyes and skin Unconsciousness, suffocation and frostbite
Oxygen Coughing, dizziness and sore throat Behavioural changes, irritability, anxiety and confusion
Carbon dioxide Dizziness, headache, elevated blood pressure and increased heart rate Frostbite, unconsciousness and suffocation
Suphur oxide Damage to immune system Heart damage, liver and kidney function damage
Promethium Nausea, vomiting and sickness Radioactive substance
Hydrocarbon Coughing, vomiting, burning in stomach Coma, seizures and respiratory distress
Nitrogen oxide Coughing and wheezing Respiratory problems, inflammation of the lining of the lungs and bronchitis
Ferrochrome Diarrhoea, stomach pains, indigestion and vomiting

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Automotive Production

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Toyota South Africa Motors Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Toluene Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, red & painful skin & eyes Unconsciousness and burning of digestive tract
Xylene Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, redness of eyes and skin Burning of digestive tract
Hydrogen peroxide Sore throat, cough, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, red and painful eyes & skin Corrosive (burning) to skin and eyes and blurred vision
Cataler SA Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Aluminium oxide Coughing, redness of eyes Lung disease and affects nervous system
Platinum Coughing, sore throat, red and painful eyes, vomiting and nausea Decreased lung function and cardiovascular disease
Rhodium Coughing and redness of eyes Skin allergy and rashes
Vanadium oxalate Sore throat, coughing, redness of skin and eyes Cardiac and vascular disease
Poly ethylene gylcol Diarrhoea and nausea
Ammonia Irritate and burn skin, mouth, throat, lungs and eyes. Blindness, lung damage or death.
Nitrogen oxide Coughing and wheezing Respiratory problems, inflammation of the lining of the lungs and bronchitis
Plascon Automotive Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Isocynates Irritation of the eyes, nose, skin and throat, shortness of breath and coughing Bronchitis and pneumonia
Polyurethane-polymers Irritation of skin, eyes, nose and throat, chest tightness and breathing difficulties. Red and painful eyes, abdominal pain Burning of skin and digestive tract
Diethanolamine Drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, confusion, vomiting and nausea Memory loss and numbness of extremities
Propylene Dizziness, headaches, irritation of skin and eyes Burning of eyes and skin
Methylpropanol Sore throat, coughing, painful skin and eyes and abdominal pain Severe burning of skin and eyes, loss of vision
Diethylenetriamine Coughing and skin irritation Respiratory distress
Methoxypropanol - 1 & 2 Nausea, vomiting, headaches, stomach pain, diarrhoea, dizziness and constipation Anxiety, memory loss and insomnia
RoxanolCardura - e10p Eye, skin and respiratory tract irritation
Carbonate Headaches, dizziness, sweating, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath skin & eye irritation Depression, damage to vision, fatigue, numbness of extremities, memory loss and hyperventilation
Epoxy resin Skin and respiratory irritation
Dimethylamino - propylamine Coughing, sore throat, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, painful skin and eyes Severe burning of skin and eyes and blurred vision
Formic acid Sore throat, red and painful skin and eyes, vomiting, diarrhoea, coughing and shortness of breath Unconsciousness, severe burning of eyes and skin and loss of vision
Texanol Redness and irritation of skin and eyes
Acetic acid Coughing, sore throat, headache, dizziness, shortness of breath and diarrhoea Burning anf blistering of skin, loss of vision, shock and collapse
Sulfonic acid Irritation of skin, eyes, nose and throat, coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath Burning of skin and eyes
Butyldiglycol Moderate irritation of eyes and corneal injury
Paratoluene sulfonic acid Irritation of skin, coughing, dryness and burning throat Burning of skin
Methylene diisocyanate Headache, nausea, shortness of breath and skin irritation "diisocyanate-induced asthma"
WASTEMAN KZN Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Lead Nausea, vomiting and headaches Fatigue, weakness and memory loss
Perchloreothylene Dizziness, headache, sleepiness, irritation of respiratory tract and eyes Kidney dysfunction, behavioural and mood changes
Ammonium carbonate Irritation of eyes, nose, throat and lungs, coughing, difficulty breathing
Ammonium chloride Coughing, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, red and painful eyes and skin
CATALER Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Carbon monoxide Headache, nausea, rapid breathing, weakness, exhaustion, dizziness and confusion. Severe oxygen deficiency, irreversible brain and heart damage.
Volatile organic gases Headaches, dizziness and nausea Fatigue, damage to liver, kidneys and central nervous system
Nitrogen oxide Coughing and wheezing Respiratory problems, inflammation of the lining of the lungs and bronchitis
Ammonia Irritate and burn skin, mouth, throat, lungs and eyes. Blindness, lung damage or death.
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
Particulate matter Irritation of airways, coughing, difficulty breathing Asthma, possible lung and heart disease
Sodium carbonate anhydrous Vomiting, diarrhoes, coughing, blistering and redness of skin Burning of gastro-intestinal tract and corneal destruction
Sodium nitrite Headaches, nausea, dizziness, red and painful eyes Unconsciousness and convulsions
Ammonium hydroxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, vomiting, red and painful skin and eyes Blurred vision and burning of eyes and skin
Sulphuric acid Red and painful skin and eyes, sore throat, cough and abdominal pain Burning of eyes, skin, respiratory tract and digestive system
Nitric acid Coughing, sore throat, vomiting, painful skin and eyes Burning of skin and eyes
Aluminium nitrate Skin irritation, burning of eyes, coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath
Hydrazine hydrate Burning and irritation of skin and eyes Damage to respiratory tract
Chloroplatinic acid Irritation of nose and throat, coughing and wheezing
Lanthanum carbonate Nausea, vomiting, itching and rashes on skin and stomach cramps
Pyromellitic acid Irritation of skin, eyes and digestive tract, wheezing and shortness of breath
Rhodium chloride Irritation of skin and eyes, skin allergy and rashes
Aluminium oxide Cough, redness of eyes Lung disease and affects nervous system
Platinum/rhodium Coughing, sore throat, red and painful eyes, vomiting and nausea Decreased lung function and cardiovascular disease
Vanadium oxalate Weakening, sickness, headaches, sore throat and nose bleeds Bleeding of liver and kidney
Poly ethylene glycol Nausea, vomiting, bloating, dizziness, diarrhoea and constipation
Propane Drowsiness and skin irritation Unconsciousness
Acetylene Dizziness, dullness and headaches Suffocation

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Shipping and Transportation

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NATIONAL PORTS AUTHORITY Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Methane Headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting Suffocation and frostbite
Diesel Dizziness, headache, nausea, dry skin and red and painful skin and eyes Bronchitis, kidney damage, low blood pressure, asthma & potential heart disease
DURBAN COAL TERMINAL LTD Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
Coal Sneezing, coughing, red and painful eyes and skin, irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract Could potentially cause cancer
TRANSNET Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Particulate matter Irritation of airways, coughing, difficulty breathing Asthma, possible lung and heart disease
Octane Vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, sore throat, red and painful skin and eyes Unconsciousness
Polyethylene Coughing Potentially cancerous and impaired immunity
Trimethylene glycol Headaches, dizziness, nausea and vomiting
Hexylene glycol Irritation of skin, eyes and nose, cughing and wheezing May affect liver, kidney and nervous system, fatigue and reduced memory loss
Lauryl glycol Skin and eye irritation, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea
PORT OF DURBAN Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Ferromanganese Coughing Pneumonia and reduced lung function
CMC GRINDROD Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Nitrogen oxide Coughing and wheezing Respiratory problems, inflammation of the lining of the lungs and bronchitis
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
Particulate matter Irritation of airways, coughing, difficulty breathing Asthma, possible lung and heart disease
Caustic soda Nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, blistering of skin and diarrhoea Burning of skin, permanent scarring of eyes and blurred vision
Glycerine Cramping, nausea and vomiting Excessive bowel activity
Xylene Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, redness of eyes and skin Burning of digestive tract
Ethyle acetate Coughing, drowsiness, dizziness, headaches, nausea, sore throat, dry skin, red and painful eyes Unconsciousness
Butyl acetate Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, headache nausea, dry skin and red and painful eyes
Acrylonitrile Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, redness of eyes and skin, vomiting, weakness and skin blistering Convulsions
Styrene Dizziness, drowsiness, headaches, nausea, vomiting, red and painful eyes and skin Unconsciousness
Benzene Harmful to eyes, skin, airway, nervous system and lungs. Can cause blood cancer, such a leukemia.
Acetone Coughing, dizziness, drowsiness, sore throat, dry skin, nausea, vomiting, redness and painful eyes Unconsciousness, blurred vision and corneal damage
Transnet Ltd Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Crude oil Irritation of the skin and eyes, dizziness, coughing, shortness of breath and difficulty breathing Burning of skin and nose passages, black mucousand rapid heart rate
VAN OMMEREN TANK TERMINALS Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Acrylonitrile Headaches, nausea, irritaton and redness of skin Increased occurance of tumors in the brain, salivary glands and intestines
Propylene oide Coughing, sore throat, red and painful skin and eyes Burning of eyes
Hydrogen cyanide Confusion, drowsiness, headaches, nausea, shortness of breath and redness of eyes Unconsciousness or death
Acrylates Headaches, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, irritation of skin and eyes and shortness of breath Excess fluid in lungs and lung damage
Carboylic acids Skin and eye irritation, coughing, drowsiness and weakness Anaemia, heart and liver damage
Ketone Dizziness, drowsiness and diarrhoea Low blood sugar levels
Alkyl phenol ethoxylate Irritation of skin and eyes Potentially carcinogenic
Nonylphenol ethoxylate Can mimic the hormone estrogen to cause early menstruation
Monomethylamine Burning and irritation of skin and eyes, coughing and wheezing
Mono ethylene dichloride Nausea and vomiting Affects nervous system, liver and kidneys as well as respiratory distress
Sodium thiocynate Coughing, nausea, diarrhoea and weakness Affects central nervous system and thyroid
Sodium dichromate Red and painful skin and eyes, sore throat, coughing and wheezing Blurred vision, severe burning of eyes, skin and digestive tract
Hydrogen peroxide Sore throat, cough, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, red and painful eyes & skin Burning of skin and eyes and blurred vision
Methyl chloride Dizziness, headaches, nausea and vomiting Unconsciousness, frostbite and convulsions
Perchloroethylene Dizziness, sleepiness, nausea, vomiting, headaches, shortness of breath, light headedness irritation of eyes lungs and respiratory tract Affects central nervous system, liver and kidneys
Amino alcohols Nausea, headaches, loss of appetite and muscle wasting Brain disorders
Glycols Skin irritation and allergy Poor kidney and liver function, cardiovascular and respiratory issues
Methyl tert-butyl ether Drowsiness, dizziness, headache, weakness, nausea, vomiting, redness of skin & eyes Unconsciousness
Hexene Coughing, dizziness, drowsiness, sore throat, vomiting, dry skin and redness of eyes Unconsciousness
Toluene Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, red and painful skin & eyes Unconsciousness and burning of digestive tract
Xylene Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, redness of eyes and skin Burning of digestive tract
Methyl methacrylatemonomer styrene Coughing, sore throat, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting and redness of skin & eyes
Vinyl acetate monomer Irritation of eyes, nose and throat
AIRPORTS COMPANY SOUTH AFRICA Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Volatile organic compounds Headaches, dizziness and nausea Fatigue, damage to liver, kidneys and central nervous system
Benzene Harmful to eyes, skin, airway, nervous system and lungs. Can cause blood cancer, such a leukemia.
Toluene Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, red and painful skin and eyes Unconsciousness and burning of digestive tract
Xylene Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, redness of eyes and skin Burning of digestive tract
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
Nitrogen oxide Coughing and wheezing Respiratory problems, inflammation of the lining of the lungs and bronchitis
INDIAN OCEAN TERMINALS (IOT) Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Caustic soda Nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, blistering of skin and diarrhoea Burning of skin, permanent scarring of eyes and blurred vision
Particulate matter Irritation of airways, coughing, difficulty breathing Asthma, possible lung and heart disease

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Oil and Gas

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SASOL SYNTHETIC FUELS Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Methane Headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting Suffocation and frostbite
Hydrocarbons Coughing, vomiting, burning in stomach Coma, seizures and respiratory distress
Carbon monoxide Headache, nausea, rapid breathing, weakness, exhaustion, dizziness and confusion. Severe oxygen deficiency, irreversible brain and heart damage.
Nitrogen oxide Coughing and wheezing Respiratory problems, inflammation of the lining of the lungs and bronchitis
Argon Dizziness, dullness, headache Suffocation, frostbite
Hydrogen peroxide Sore throat, cough, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, red and painful eyes & skin Burning of skin and eyes and blurred vision
Particulate matter Irritation of airways, coughing, difficulty breathing Asthma, possible lung and heart disease
Heavy fuel oil Vomiting, diarrhoea, coughing, drowsiness, restlessness and difficulty breathing Pneumonia and unconsciousness
Nitrogen Painful eyes, burning of eyes and skin Unconsciousness, suffocation and frostbite
Sulphur oxide Damage to immune system Heart damage, liver and kidney function damage
Carbon dioxide Dizziness, headache, elevated blood pressure and increased heart rate Frostbite, unconsciousness, and suffocation
Ethane Dizziness, vomiting and nausea Suffocation and frostbite
Ethylene Drowsiness and headaches Unconsciousness
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
SAPREF Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Sulphide Headache, dizziness, nausea, coughing, drowsiness and altered breath Fatigue and memory loss
Hydrogen sulphide Headache, irritation of eyes, nose and throat. Unconsciousness or death
Ammonia Irritate and burn skin, mouth, throat, lungs and eyes. Blindness, lung damage or death.
Carbon dioxide Dizziness, headache, elevated blood pressure and increased heart rate Frostbite, unconsciousness and suffocation
Sulphur oxide Damage to immune system. Harmful to eyes, skin, airway, nervous system and lungs. Heart damage, liver and kidney function damage. Can cause blood cancer, such a leukemia.
Toluene Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, red & painful skin and eyes Unconsciousness and burning of digestive tract
M&p-xylene
O-xylene Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, redness of eyes and skin Burning of digestive tract
Octane Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, redness of eyes and skin Burning of digestive tract
Nonane Vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, sore throat, red and painful skin & eyes Unconsciousness
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
Methyl tert butyl ether Drowsiness, dizziness, headache, weakness, red skin and eyes, nausea and vomiting Unconsciousness
Manganese tricarbonyl Irritability, lack of concentration Agressiveness, hallucinations
Ferrocene Sore throat, red and painful eyes and skin
Ethyl tert-butyl ether Cough, drowsiness, red skin and eyes, sore throat Unconsciousness
Tert-amyl methyl ether Skin and eye irritation Unconsciousness
Ethanol Coughing, headache, drowsiness, dry skin, red and painful eyes Fatigue and burning eyes
Maleic anhydride Red and painful skin and eyes, coughing and laboured breath Blurred vision, burning of digestive tract
Fumaric acid Red and painful skin and eyes, coughing, sore throat, nausea and diarrhoea
Butane Drowsiness Unconsciousness and frostbite
Xylene Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, redness of eyes and skin Burning of digestive tract
NATCOS Pty Ltd Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Particulate matter Irritation of airways, coughing, difficulty breathing Asthma, possible lung and heart disease
Hydrocarbons Coughing, vomiting, burning in stomach Coma, seizures and respiratory distress
CHEVRON CORPORATION PROJECT PHOENIX Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Benzene Harmful to eyes, skin, airway, nervous system and lungs. Can cause blood cancer, such a leukemia.
Toluene Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, red and painful skin & eyes Unconsciousness and burning of digestive tract
Ethylbenzene Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, drowsiness, redness of skin and eyes, headaches and burning of chest and throat
Xylene Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, redness of eyes and skin Burning of digestive tract
Volatile organic compounds Headaches, dizziness and nausea Fatigue, damage to liver, kidneys and central nervous system
VOPAK Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Acrylonitrile Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, redness of eyes and skin, vomiting, weakness and skin blistering Convulsions
Propylene oxide Coughing, sore throat, red and painful skin and eyes Burning of eyes
Vinyl acetate Irritation of eyes, nose and throat
Hydrogen cyanide Confusion, drowsiness, headaches, nausea, shortness of breath and redness of eyes Unconsciousness or death
Ethyl acrylate Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, red and painful eyes and skin
Butyl acrylate Coughing, sore throat, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, redness of skin and eyes
2-ethylhexyl acrylate Skin, eye and respiratory tract irritation
Butanol Coughing, headaches, dizziness, vomiting, nausea, wheezing and headaches Irregular heartbeat
n-butanol Drowsiness, dizziness and irritation of skin and eyes
1-butanol Coughing, sore throat, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, vomiting, diarrhoea, redness of skin and eyes
BULBUS GAS RECOVERY PROJECT Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Nitrogen oxide Coughing and wheezing Respiratory problems, inflammation of the lining of the lungs and bronchitis
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
Volatile organic compounds Headaches, dizziness and nausea Fatigue, damage to liver, kidneys and central nervous system
Dioxins Coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath Irritation of airways
Furan Irritation and burning of skin, eyes and respiratory tract, dizziness, headaches and shortness of breath Unconsciousness
ELF GAS Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Propane Drowsiness and skin irritation Unconsciousness
Butane Drowsiness Unconsciousness and frostbite
CALTEX OIL Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Paraffin Irritation of eyes and respiratory tract, nausea and skin rashes Diabetes, poor blood circulation and numbness of hands and feet
EASIGAS Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Liquified petroleum gas Dizziness Hallucination or heart failure
Propane Drowsiness and skin irritation Unconsciousness
Butane Drowsiness Unconsciousness and frostbite
Particulate Matter Irritation of airways, coughing, difficulty breathing Asthma, possible lung and heart disease
Butylene Coughing, dizziness, headache, nausea, sore throat, red and painful eyes and skin Unconsciousness
Isobutene Drowsiness, dizziness, dullness, nausea and vomiting Unconsciousness and frostbite
Faecal coliforms Fever, abdominal cramps and diarrhoea Upset gastrointestine
Nitrogen oide Coughing and wheezing Respiratory problems, inflammation of the lining of the lungs and bronchitis
BLENDCOR PLY LTD Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Calcium sulphate Coughing, redness of eyes, abdominal pain Inflammation of skin
CASTROL Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Calcium sulphate Coughing, redness of eyes, abdominal pain Inflammation of skin
Diesel Dizziness, headache, nausea, dry skin and red and painful skin and eyes Bronchitis, kidney damage, low blood pressure, asthma & potential heart disease
Carbon monoxide Headache, nausea, rapid breathing, weakness, exhaustion, dizziness and confusion. Severe oxygen deficiency, irreversible brain and heart damage.
Sulphur oxide Damage to immune system Heart damage, liver and kidney function damage
Carbon dioxide Dizziness, headache, elevated blood pressure and increased heart rate Frostbite, unconsciousness and suffocation
ENGEN PETROLEUM REFINERY Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Nitrogen oxide Coughing and wheezing Respiratory problems, inflammation of the lining of the lungs and bronchitis
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
Sulphur oxide Damage to immune system Heart damage, liver and kidney function damage
Octane Vomiting, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, sore throat, red & painful skin and eyes Unconsciousness
Carbon dioxide Dizziness, headache, elevated blood pressure and increased heart rate Frostbite, unconsioness and suffocation
Methyl tert-butyl ether Drowsiness, dizziness, headache, weakness, red skin and eyes, nausea and vomiting Unconsciousness
Liquid petroleum gas Dizziness Hallucination or heart failure
Liquid asphaltene Coughing, shortness of breath, red and painful eyes Serious skin burns
BItumen Affects respiratory system Potentially cancerous, asthma and bronchitis
Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons Irritation of throat and stomach, difficulty breathing Pneumonia, affects immune system, lungs, liver and kidney function
Hydrogen sulphide Headache, irritation of eyes, nose and throat Unconsciousness or death

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General Manufacturing

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SOUTH AFRICAN BREWERIES LTD. Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Methane Headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting Suffocation and frostbite
Particulate matter Irritation of airways, coughing, difficulty breathing Asthma, possible lung and heart disease
Hydrogen sulphide Headache, irritation of eyes, nose and throat. Unconsciousness or death
INDUSTRIAL OLEO CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Sulphur oxides Damage to immune system Heart damage, liver and kidney function damage
SOUTH DURBAN SEA Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Carbon monoxide Headache, nausea, rapid breathing, weakness, exhaustion, dizziness and confusion. Severe oxygen deficiency, irreversible brain and heart damage.
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
Nitrogen oxide Coughing and wheezing Respiratory problems, inflammation of the lining of the lungs and bronchitis
Liquified petroleum gas Dizziness Hallucination or heart failure
Paraffin Irritation of eyes and respiratory tract, nausea and skin rashes Diabetes, poor blood circulation and numbness of hands and feet
Bitumen Affects respiratory system Potentially cancerous, asthma and bronchitis
Volatile organic compounds Headaches, dizziness and nausea Fatigue, damage to liver, kidneys and central nervous system
WASTE ALLIANCE Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Methane Headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting Suffocation and frostbite
Landfill gas Headache, dizziness, nausea, stress, anxiety, irritation of eyes and respiratory system Cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory and nerve disorder
TONGAAT HULETT SUGAR REFINERY Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Nitrogen oxide Coughing and wheezing Respiratory problems, inflammation of the lining of the lungs and bronchitis
Carbon dioxide Dizziness, headache, elevated blood pressure and increased heart rate Frostbite, unconsioness and suffocation
Sulphur dioxide Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, red and painful eyes Bronchitis and asthma attacks
Particulate matter Irritation of airways, coughing, difficulty breathing Asthma, possible lung and heart disease
Calcium carbonate Nausea, vomiting, constipation and flatulence Loss of appetite, varying of calcium and phosphate levels in the body
OTV RSA ENVIRONMENT LTD Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Ozone Coughing, headaches, sore throat, loss of vision, redness of skin and eyes and shortness of breath Frostbite and fatigue
Chlorine Coughing, sore throat, shortness of breath, wheezing, red and painful skin and eyes Burning of skin and eyes and frostbite
HEARTLAND LEASING Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Sodium hydroxide Coughing, shortness of breath, blisters on skin, painful and red eyes and skin Burning of skin, eyes and digestive tract
Sodium chloride Coughing, sore throat, vomiting, red and painful eyes and skin Convulsions
UMBONGITWINI INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Oleum Coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, vomiting, nausea, red and painful eyes and skin Burning of eyes, skin, respiratory tract and digestive system
Sulphuric acid Red and painful skin and eyes, sore throat, cough and abdominal pain Burning of eyes, skin, respiratory tract and digestive system
Sulphur trioxide Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, nausea skin blisters, red and painful skin and eyes Severe burning of the skin and eyes, shock or collapse
Hydrogen Headaches, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting and dizziness Unconsciousness, depression and suffocation
ANCHOR PAIL AND DRUM Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Acetone Coughing, dizziness, drowsiness, sore throat, dry skin, nausea, vomiting, redness and painful eyes Unconsciousness, blurred vision and corneal damage
Acetic acid Coughing, sore throat, headache, dizziness, shortness of breath and diarrhoea Burning and blistering of skin, loss of vision, shock and collapse
Alkylphenol Affects liver and kidneys
Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate Eye irritation and skin sensitivity
Mineral oil Diarrhoea, tightness of chest, redness of skin and stomach cramps Burning and blistering of skin, loss of vision, shock and collapse
Alkenyl succinimide Inflammation of skin
Calcium alkaryl Skin or eye irritation
Aryl phosphine Headaches, dizziness, cough, sore throat and chest tightness Fatigue, tremors and excess fluid in lungs
Alkyl phosphate Increased risk of Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder
Alkyl amine Irritation of skin and eyes, coughing and sore throat
Hydrogen chloride Irritation fo eyes, skin and respiratory tract, coughing and sore throat Burning of skin and eyes, frostbite
Toluene Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, red and painful skin & eyes Unconsciousness and burning of digestive tract
Xylene Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, redness of eyes and skin Burning of digestive tract
Light aliphatic petroleum solvent Dizziness and cardio-respiratory arrest Hallucination, nerve and brain damage
Ethanol blends Asthma Cardiovascular and pulmonary disease
Ethylene glycol monobutyl Irritation of eyes, nose and throat, vomiting, diarrhoea and headaches Acute renal failure
n-hexane Dizziness, headaches, nausea, painful and red skin and eyes Unconsciousness
Benzene Harmful to eyes, skin, airway, nervous system and lungs. Can cause blood cancer, such a leukemia.
Sodium nitrate Coughing, sore throat, redness of skin and eyes, diarrhoea, dizziness, nausea & headaches Unconsciousness
Sodium hydroxide Coughing, shortness of breath, blisters on skin, painful and red eyes and skin Corrosive to skin, eyes and digestive tract
TOTAL PTY LTD Acute Health Impacts Chronic Health Impacts
Diesel fuel Dizziness, headache, nausea, dry skin and red and painful skin and eyes Bronchitis, kidney damage, low blood pressure, asthma & potential heart disease
Calcium Red and irritated eyes Overactive thyroid gland and potential bone cancer
Hydrocarbons Coughing, vomiting, burning in stomach Coma, seizures and respiratory distress
Benzene Harmful to eyes, skin, airway, nervous system and lungs. Can cause blood cancer, such a leukemia.
Toluene Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, red and painful skin and eyes Unconsciousness and burning of digestive tract
Ethylbenzene Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, drowsiness, redness of skin and eyes, headaches and burning of chest and throat Burning of digestive tract
Xylene Dizziness, drowsiness, headache, nausea, redness of eyes and skin Fatgiue and loss of vision
Tetraethyl lead Irritation of skin and eyes, weakness, headaches and disturbed sleep

Compiled by: Reshantha Moodley Reviewed by: Professor Rajen Naidoo Data collection: Conner Vasu


South Durban Community Environmental Alliance (SDCEA) is an organisation that campaigns for environmental justice and sustainable development in South Durban and the broader Durban municipal area. SDCEA was launched in 1995 to unite members in a common struggle for a healthy living environment and for environmentally sustainable and socially responsible development in south Durban. SDCEA has been both unique and tenacious in challenging government and industry to address the inequities of pollution and unsustainable development in the area and simultaneously raising public awareness about environmental justice.

To learn more about their work, visit sdcea.co.za.


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