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pH Testing Technologies & Citizen Science

by gilbert |

pH TESTING TECHNOLOGIES & CITIZEN SCIENCE

Testing for acidity and basicity has undergone significant development since the emergence of litmus paper, first utilized in the early 1300's by Arnaldus de Villa Nova (Photo Credit - Alchetron.com ). In John Buie's 2010 article in Lab Manager, October 07, 2010, "Evolution of the pH Meter: Tracing the origins of the pH meter and looking ahead to future advances," he traces the evolution of pH meters from the pioneering work of Cremer, Haber and Klemensiewicz in the early 1900's, through advancements by Beckman in the 1930's, as well as Kuntze & Cannon in the 1940's. The Buie chronology continues with miniaturization of pH meters, emerging in 1948, with NEOTEK PONSEL's introduction of the first handheld pH meter, with continuing innovations by companies such as Jenco Electronics, WTW, Hanna, Schott, Denver Instruments, Mettler Toledo, Sartorius Mechatronics, Metrohm and Hach Lange.

The quest for relatively low cost pH meters yielded a variety of commercial devices that are listed below:

|

Manufacturer|

Model|

Cost| |

HACH|

PH1 5050T SensION+|

$525.00| |

HANNA INSTRUMENTS|

HI98190 Professional Waterproof Portable pH/ORP Meter|

$495.00| |

HANNA INSTRUMENTS|

HI991001 Waterproof pH/Temperature Meter|

$320.00| |

Cole-Palmer|

HMD PH‑200 Digital Professional|

$75.02| |

Luster Leaf|

LUS 1847 Rapidtest Digital Plus|

$29.99| |

Robot Shop|

Gravity Analog pH Meter Kit|

$29.50|

The full range includes HANNA Instruments: http://hannainst.com/products/portable-meters/parameter/ph.html#filter:parameter:pH beginning at $169 through $2,500, the Hach PH1 5050T SensION+ with a list price of $525; the Sparkfun Electronics Sen 10972 pH Sensor Kit https://www.sparkfun.com/products/10972 $149.95, the HMD PH‑200 Digital Professional , listed at $75.02; Atlas Scientific's EZO pH Circuit https://www.atlas-scientific.com/product_pages/circuits/ezo_ph.html $38, HANNA's, the Gravity Analog pH Meter Kit and the Luster Leaf LUS1847 Rapitest Digital Plus both at under $30.

The Citizen Scientist movement has further accelerated the emergence of several DIY pH devices:

  • Instructables' Cheap DIY Electronic pH Meter- 3 Steps, described as "an electronic pH meter made out of 3 main components; the pH probe, the voltmeter and the circuit."

http://www.instructables.com/id/cheap-DIY-electronic-pH-meter/

In addition to the commercial and DIY pH meters, simple litmus paper testing for pH has survived since its introduction in 1300 by Arnaldus de Villa Nova. Although no longer derived from blue dyes extracted from lichens in the Netherlands, as was the case ab initio, several companies continue to produce litmus paper strip kits for pH testing, ranging from Cole-Palmer kits at $4.15, Grainger Industries at $4.95 to $99.50, as follows:

|

COMPANY|

MODEL|

COST| |

Cole-Palmer|

pH Test Strips|

$4.15| |

Grainger Industries|

Learning Resources pH|

$4.95| |

Cole-Palmer|

Advantec Litmus Blue Test|

$8.98| |

Lamotte|

Test Strip 50 Pk.|

$10.14| |

Franklin Machine Products|

Sani-Safe Test paper|

$12.49| |

Hydrion|

Micro Essential Test Strips|

$13.99| |

Hydrion|

pHydrion 9800 Plastic pH|

$16.65| |

Oakton|

Accumet pH Test paper|

$18.75| |

Grainger Industries|

pHydrion 165/1-12 pH|

$19.13| |

Oakton|

pH Indicator Strips|

$21.50| |

Grainger Industries|

EMD Millipore 9590-3PH|

$99.50|

Examples of citizen science projects that have utilized water quality testing devices, inter alia include the following:

CITIZEN SCIENCE PROJECTS SUPPORTED BY THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) https://www.epa.gov/citizen-science/citizen-science-projects-supported-epa

CITIZEN SCIENCE PROJECTS FUNDED BY THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES (NIEHS): https://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/supported/translational/peph/webinars/citizen_science/index.cfm

CITIZEN SCIENCE PROJECTS FEATURED BY THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/idea/citizen-science-projects/

CITIZEN MONITORING & TRAINING: WATER RESEARCH CENTER:

http://www.water-research.net/index.php/citizen-monitoring-and-training

WORLD WATER MONITORING CHALLENGE - SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN: https://www.scientificamerican.com/citizen-science/world-water-monitoring-challenge/

CITIZEN SCIENCE & WATER MONITORING- PLOS.ORG http://blogs.plos.org/citizensci/2014/09/17/citizen-science-water-monitoring-healthy-water-near-2/

SCIENCE TEACHERS' TOOLBOX: TESTING WATER QUALITY - SHARE IT! SCIENCE NEWS: http://www.shareitscience.com/2015/06/science-teachers-toolbox-testing-water.html
"No Ph.D. Needed: 8 Impactful Citizen Science Projects," MASHABLE.COM - http://mashable.com/2014/06/25/citizen-science-projects/#rU7jCpLeTGq8



citizen-science water-quality ph ph-testing


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