studies, considerations, experimental RMF generator proposal,questions and answers, conclusions
Why magnetic fields ?
Magnetic fields provide superior penetration in biological tissue
What is a rotating magnetic field ?
A rotating magnetic field is a magnetic field that has moving polarities in which its opposite poles rotate about a central point or axis. Not to be confused with a static magnetic field. The rotating field may be created either by a rotating magnet or a set of electromagnets.
Magnetic induction B (also known as magnetic flux density) has the SI unit tesla [T or Wb/m2]
magnetic induction B in teslas and gauss
1T = 10.000 gauss
spinning magnet + coil ( iron core or iron less ) => electric energy ( I=V/R ) => electric current
ampere (A) = volt (V) / ohm (Ω)
The question :
spinning magnet + virus/bacteria/organic tissue => ? (direct/indirect effects)
What is non-ionizing radiation ?
Non-ionizing (or non-ionising) radiation refers to any type of electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough energy per quantum (photon energy) to ionize atoms or molecules—that is, to completely remove an electron from an atom or molecule. Instead of producing charged ions when passing through matter, non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation has sufficient energy only for excitation, the movement of an electron to a higher energy state. Source - Wikipedia
The purpose of this article is to encourage more MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETICS, VIROLOGY RESEARCHERS and signal processing experts to test, as soon as possible, the effects of rotating magnetic fields applied to different types of viruses (STARTING WITH COVID-19...) and bacteria to find possible future treatments/ synergistic effect/ adjunct to antiviral/ - antiseptics/ - antibiotics
Why not a MRI scanner / NMR instead the rotating magnetic field generator for the tests ?
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures the spatial distribution of specific nuclear spins (usually those of protons) in the body. Electric signals from the spins are measured using precessional motion of the proton spins after they are excited by radiofrequency (RF) pulses irradiated in a static magnetic field.
The phenomenon in which the nuclear spins generate or emit electric signals of a specific frequency (Larmor frequency) in a static magnetic field is called nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
The electric signal (NMR signal) itself carries no spatial information. The spatial information necessary to generate an image is given by magnetic field gradients that are generated by gradient coils. Because they are driven by pulsed electric currents in a strong magnetic field, the coils receive a repetitive strong force, and a loud sound is produced during the MRI scan.
Target of the expermental RMF generator (by construction ) : to obtain a rotating magnetic field ( not a static one ) and to avoid coils using a low input power.
Static magnetic fields are constant fields, which do not change in intensity or direction over time, in contrast to low and high frequency alternating fields. Hence, they have a frequency of 0 Hz. They exert an attracting force on metallic objects containing, for example, iron, nickel or cobalt, and so magnets are commonly used for this purpose.
PROPOSING AN EXPERIMENTAL ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELDS GENERATOR
max. input power 10 W
frequency (Hz) = RPM x P/120
P= 2 ( number of poles )
RPM = 19800
The instrument can be used for the experiments of precise positioning for large sample groups, safe and reliable spin.
The experimental RMF generator can be replicated FREE by each interested laboratory with low construction cost (aprox. 60 Euro or less ), following the instructions presented in below article. If you encounter technical difficulties in the construction of the RMF generator you can contact us at email@example.com - asistance free
Important note : the rmf generator can be connected to a pwm controller to adjust the speed of the electric motor - OPTIONAL COMPONENT !
input : DC USB external battery 5,1 V 2,4 A or USB charger
electric motor : 3 V DC motor, shaft diameter 2 mm
26 mm sphere weight : 69,9410 g
sphere weight + metal case + connector weight : 75 g
RPM : aprox. 19800
**Construction details :
26 mm neodymium sphere technical data :
Material : NdFeB
Diameter : 26 mm
Coating Chrome-plated (Ni-Cu-Ni-Cr)
Manufacturing method : sintered
Magnetisation : N38
Strength : approx. 9,1 kg (approx. 89,2 N)
Max. working temperature : 80°C
Weight :69,9410 g
Curie temperature : 310 °C
Residual magnetism Br : 12200-12600 G, 1.22-1.26 T
Coercive field strength bHc : 10.8-11.5 kOe, 860-915 kA/m
Coercive field strength iHc : ≥12 kOe, ≥955 kA/m
Energy product (BxH)max : 36-38 MGOe, 287-303 kJ/m³
Important note : the sphere is fixed in a specific position to generate the optimum rotating magnetic fields
The presented device produces a rotating magnetic feld - range 200 Hz - 2 GHz, max. input power max 10 W .
The sphere is fixed in a specific position.
The distance " z " between the subject test and the spinning neodymum sphere can be adjusted.
Low replication cost - aprox 60 euro or less
Due to the low power input (10 W) of the rotating magnetic field device, the indirect exposure of the workers in the laboratory during the tests, keeps them in a " safe area "
ROTATING MAGNETIC FIELDS experimental generator test
We have a magnet placed near a coil which has free electrons in it, like in the image below.If the magnet is rotated then the magnetic field around the magnet pulls the charge (electrons) in different direction which in turn causes the flow of electrons in the coil in alternate direction and hence current is generated.
Important note : the coil used in the test IS NOT a component of the Rmf generator
efficiency test done on a coreless coil
FULL RMF experimental device TEST : https://youtu.be/FljH5uKLfMk
If you encounter technical difficulties in the construction of the RMF generator you can contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org - asistance free
IMPORTANT EXISTING STUDIES :
"Application of Rotating Magnetic Fields Increase the Activity of Antimicrobials Against Wound Biofilm Pathogens "
- Junka, R. Rakoczy, P. Szymczyk, M. Bartoszewicz, P. P. Sedghizadeh,and K. Fijałkowski
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Parasitology, Wrocław Medical University, Borowska 211A, 50-556 Wrocław, Poland Institute of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection Processes, Faculty of Chemical Technology and Engineering, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Piastów 42, 71-065 Szczecin, Poland Centre for Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (CAMT/FPC), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Łukasiewicza 5, 50-371 Wrocław, Poland Center for Biofilms, Ostrow School of Dentistry of University of Southern California, 925 West 34th, Los Angeles, California, United States of America Department of Immunology, Microbiology and Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Animal Husbandry, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Piastów 45, 70-311 Szczecin, Poland K. Fijałkowski, Email: email@example.com.
The conclusion was:
" Our results suggest that RMF as an adjunct to antiseptic wound care can significantly improve antibiofilm activity, which has important translational potential for clinical applications."
Biofilm formed by (a) P. aeruginosa and (b) S. aureus (mag. 2,500x and 2,340x, respectively).
Reduction [%] of growth and biofilm biomass of microorganisms in cultures with (a) gentamicin and (b) ciprofloxacin after 1 h exposure to RMF depending on RMF frequencies. The results are presented as % reduction of growth and biofilm biomass in cultures with antimicrobial in comparison to the culture without antimicrobial after 1 h exposure to RMF and expressed as a mean ± SEM calculated from the four repetitions of the experiment.
"The test wasn't conducted with RMF only ( "+ " gentamicin and ciprofloxacin ). In addition, it's important to note that not all pathogens create or produce biofilm for survival. They used Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a model, but in fairness they have shown effects on other bacteria, including E. coli, as explained in the introduction in previous work."
RMF range 10–50 Hz
"Microbial transport of nutrients and metabolites relies on ion exchange canals; ions are also present inside of bacterial cytoplasm and in the external environment. Bearing in mind that all biological structures are somewhat electrically charged we can, at least partially understand discrepancies between results of other teams investigating magnetic fields."
" Growth of Plasmodium falciparum in response to a rotating magnetic field " (MALARIA)
Rebecca C. Gilson, Robert J. Deissler, Richard F. Bihary, William C. Condit, Mary E. Thompson, D’Arbra Blankenship, Kerry O. Grimberg, Robert W. Brown & Brian T. Grimberg
Department of Physics, CWRU College of Arts and Sciences, 2076 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH, 44106-7079, USA Rebecca C. Gilson, Robert J. Deissler, Richard F. Bihary, William C. Condit, Mary E. Thompson & Robert W. Brown Department of Pathology, Center for Global Health and Diseases, Biomedical Research Building, Room 427, 2109 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA Rebecca C. Gilson, D’Arbra Blankenship, Kerry O. Grimberg & Brian T. Grimberg
What hapens when rotating magnetic field intereact with paramagnetic haemozoin crystals (MALARIA) ?
Paramagnetic haemozoin crystals, a byproduct of the parasite’s haemoglobin digestion, interact with a rotating magnetic field, which prevents their complete formation, causing the accumulation of free haem, which is lethal to the parasites. - "
"The parasite dies at 5 and 10 Hz. The issue with this is that it's in vitro; it's not being tested alongside human tissue. It's also important to learn how the malaria parasite functions in the host."
The term in vivo refers to a medical test, experiment or procedure that is done on (or in) a living organism, such as a laboratory animal or human.
The term in vitro, in contrast to in vivo, refers to a medical study or experiment which is done in the laboratory within the confines of a test tube or laboratory dish.
"The issue I have with this study, is that it's not conducted on humans. How can this procedure be translated to real life subjects?"
"Potent Stimulation of Blood Flow in Fingers of Volunteers after Local Short-Term Treatment with Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields from a Novel Device"
Richard H. W. Funk , Lilla Knels, Antje Augstein, Rainer Marquetant, and Hermann F. Dertinger
" Healthy Volunteer Experiments
Short-term treatments (5 minutes) were carried out with the MagCell-SR device using rotating strong magnets (Fa. Physiomed, Laipersdorf, Germany) (Figure 1(a)) exhibiting electromagnetic frequencies between 4 and 12 Hz. A comparison of this treatment was also made with static magnetic fields (shut off the device means no rotation of the magnet disc). "
A - control device removed
B - during treatment with a static magnetic field (device shutoff)
C - during treatment with alternating magnetic field (device in operation)
D - immediately after treatment C
E - two minutes after treatment C
Shows that vessels dilate in the presence of rotating magnets, possibly due to the release of NO.
"Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields"
- Tao and K. Huang
The article is locked, so it's a mystery to me how this was examined or processed.
" Rotating magnetic field delays human umbilical vein endothelial cell aging and prolongs the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans "
Xu J, Liu K, Chen T, Zhan T, Ouyang Z, Wang Y, Liu W, Zhang X, Sun Y, Xu G, Wang X.
Characterization of rotating magnetic field and experimental setup. (A) Experimental setup for treatment of Caenorhabditis elegans and cells with a rotating magnetic field (RMF). C. elegans and cells were positioned above the RMF generator and exposed to RMFs of different amplitudes consisting of two overlaying components: translational (with varying inversion time) and rotational (with varying rotational frequencies). (B, C) B(t, ω) represents the magnetic field induction as a function of time; B0 represents the amplitude; Fτ represents the contribution of the translational movement of different inversion time; and ωt represents the contributing rotation frequency.
" Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are cells derived from the endothelium of veins from the umbilical cord. They are used as a laboratory model system for the study of the function and pathology of endothelial cells (e.g., angiogenesis). They are used due to their low cost, and simple techniques for isolating them from umbilical cords, which are normally resected after childbirth. "
Source : Wikipedia
RMF extends the life of HUVECs in a multi-target manner. (A) Volcano map showing the RNA-seq expression pattern in HUVECs exposed to RMF for 4 h compared to that of untreated control cells. Red indicates a higher expression level and green indicates a lower expression level. The distance of the dot from the x-axis reflects the size of the P-value. (B, C) Gene enrichment map in HUVECs exposed to a RMF for 4 h compared to untreated control cells. (D) Signal transduction pathways affected by RMF. (E) Predicted protein interactions.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a species of soil-dwelling nematode (roundworm) used as a model organism in molecular genetics and developmental biology
Rotating magnetic field exposure delays HUVEC senescence. (A, B) HUVECs were exposed to RMF daily for 0 h, 2 h, and 4 h; 20 μM metformin was used as a positive control. SA-β-Gal staining was performed and the number of β-Gal-positive (blue) cells was calculated as a percentage of the total cell number using Image J software. (C, D) Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis of HUVEC after RMF treatment. (E) Western blot analysis showed that RMF exposure increased in AMPK protein expression and decreased P21, P53 and mTOR protein expression.
So many things happening in this study. I think they should have started with C. elegans, then used the same procedure with the endothelial human cells.
"Nerve–muscle activation by rotating permanent magnet configurations"
Peter A. Watterson and Graham M. Nicholson
An exciting field of theoretical work and experimental testing is opened up by this initial study. Further detailed testing is needed, ideally on longer nerves in vitro, but also on animals and humans in vivo (after ethical approval).
" Physiotherapy with rotating pulse magnetic field in combined therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease "
Lobanov AIu, Gilinskaia NIu, Chereĭskaia NK.
The addition of RIMF in combined treatment of COPD improves treatment and shortens its duration.
Considerations : topic is locked , insuficient details.
From " Biological Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields: Sources and Mechanisms " Edited by David O. Carpenter
The Earth has a steady geomagnetic field 0,5 G. There are some sites with fields as high as 0.6 - 0.7 G and low of about 0.23 G. This field originate from sub-mantle currents flow. Life on earth has evolved in the presence of the geomagnetic field. In the past of the 70 millions years the geomagnetic field has reverse polarity at least 10 times. The earth's field induces a current in a rotating body similar to a 60 Hz magnetic field induced current in a stationary body except from the frequency
Equating the induced voltage of an equivalent 60 magnetic fields yields :
B 60 HZ = 1. 33 mG
Thus, a modest rotation in the earth's field at 1 rad/sec induces the same current density magnitude as a 0.94 mG rms 60 Hz magnetic field with the difference being the frequency and the 60 Hz induction being more constant over a relatively long period of time.
What happens if a rotating magnetic field is applied in COVID 19 antiviral treatment?
It is hard to say if it will help or not in direct treatment or as an adjunct to drugs treatment, because no one tested yet ! The presented studies in this article, referring to application of rotating magnetic fields against bacteria and plasmodium falciparum ( malaria ) indicates encouraging results in combined treatments and direct applications like: reducing blood viscosity, improving microcirculation and improves treatment and shortens its duration in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which can be helpful at the first look, in COVID 19 treatment, but this would be a multi-disciplinary research which need the contribution of virology, physic and signal processing experts.
What is a virus ?
A virus is a sub-microscopic infectious agent, that cannot grow or reproduce apart from a living cell. A virus invades living cells and uses their chemical machinery to keep itself alive and to replicate itself. It may reproduce with fidelity or with " errors " (mutations); this ability to mutate is responsible for the ability of some viruses to change slightly in each infected person, making treatment difficult.
"The viral replication cycle can be roughly divided into several steps: entry, uncoating, mRNA transcription and protein synthesis, replication of genetic materials, assembly and release. Most viral metabolism is done by the host cells, such as protein translation, which is not a viable target for antiviral drugs (apparently we don’t want to mess with the host metabolism, otherwise it will result in unacceptable toxicities, as exemplified by chemotherapy). However, viruses still need to encode some proteins to facilitate their replication, which can serve as their vulnerabilities."
Here are several common types of antiviral drugs:
Polymerase inhibitors. These drugs constitute the largest class of antiviral drugs. Because most viruses encode a polymerase (DNA polymerase, RdRp or reverse transcriptase) to facilitate the synthesis of their genetic materials, such as large DNA viruses (adenovirus, herpes simplex virus and smallpox virus), all RNA viruses (HCV, influenza) and reverse transcribing viruses (HIV, HBV), targeting viral polymerase is broadly applicable to most viruses. Approved viral polymerase inhibitors include zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), rilpivirin (RPV) for HIV, tenofovir (TAF) for HBV, sofosbuvir for HCV, acyclovir for herpes simplex, favipiravir for influenza and GS-5734 for Ebola.
Integrase inhibitors. This type of drugs are used to treat HIV infection, as retroviruses encode an integrase, and integration is obligated for retroviral replication. Examples include raltegravir (RAL), dolutegravir (DTG) and bictegravir (BIC). Although integrase inhibitors are a relatively new type of antiretroviral drugs, they have gradually taken over the market of antiretroviral therapy as they have a potent efficacy, high resistance barrier (especially second Gen inhibitors like DTG and BIC) and excellent tolerability.
Protease inhibitors. Proteases are commonly encoded by viruses with positive sensed RNA as genetic materials, such as HCV and HIV, as the viral proteins of these viruses are synthesized in a long polyprotein, which needs to be processed into functional individual proteins. Approved protease inhibitors include lopinavir, saquinavir for HIV and glecaprevir for HCV. Because viruses of other classes (DNA viruses and RNA viruses with negative or double stranded RNA) don’t need a protease to process the viral proteins, they are not amenable to this therapeutic strategy.
Uncoating inhibitors. M2 is a rare but essential envelope protein of influenza virus. It functions as a proton channel, which acidifies and destabilizes the viral capsid. Some antiviral drugs like amantadine can block this ion channel, so that the viruses can’t uncoat properly. Unfortunately, because of the abuse of this drug, more than 90% circulating influenza strains have developed resistance against it, which rendered its obsolescence.
Release inhibitors. Newly assembled influenza viruses are tethered to the host cell membrane by a small molecule called sialic acid, while the viral neuraminidases can cleave this molecule, thereby liberating the nascent viruses. Neuraminidase inhibitors like oseltamivir (Tamiflu) can block the activity of neuraminidases, thereby preventing their release.
RNA capping inhibitors. RNA capping is an important step of eukaryotic mRNA transcription; as a result, viruses that make mRNA on their own (e.g., RNA viruses and smallpox virus) need to get over this problem by encoding their own capping mechanisms, which makes targeting this process an attractive therapeutic strategy (for more information, see Huang ZheYu's answer to How do viruses transcribe their genetic material in the host system?). The recently approved antiviral baloxavir is the first-in-class capping inhibitor, used for influenza treatment.
NS5A inhibitors. NS5A is a multifunctional protein encoded by HCV. Although it does not possess any enzymic activities, it plays a vital role in multiple steps of the viral replication, which makes it an attractive therapeutic target of HCV. Examples include ledipasvir, daclatasvir, velpatasvir and pibrentasvir. Entry inhibitors. Although entry is an essential step of the life cycle of all viruses, it’s not a good therapeutic target, as viral entry doesn’t entail enzymic activities, but is purely mediated by protein-protein interactions (PPI), which is much less amenable to small molecule inhibitors . Antibodies (which are large molecules) OTOH do an excellent job at blocking the viral entry, which is why we have developed many effective vaccines. That being said, there are active ongoing studies on developing small molecule entry inhibitors against HIV.
As you can see, because the replication cycles of viruses are so diverse, there is little commonality shared by most viruses, which requires different therapeutic strategies for different viruses.
Any electric current (the net movement of electrons) induces a magnetic field and any magnetic field in turn induces an electric field.
During the life-cycle of a typical virus, the virus does produce a magnetic effect, as the information-carrier molecule is charged and the production of a new virus requires the net transport of charged molecules. Note that by convention viruses are not living entities.
If rotating magnetic fields have an effect on the virus in vitro, it is possible to not obtain the same effect in vivo.
Moreover, even drugs within the same class can’t be used interchangeably (for example, protease inhibitors against HIV can’t be used to treat HCV, and vice versa). Because antiviral drugs need to be developed respectively, the cost of drug development is very high and most viral infections don’t have effective antiviral drugs.
All of this suggests our knowledge is limited in this field and we should go further with the research in this area.
Author : S.T. Bucharest, Romania
contact : firstname.lastname@example.org