As explained in @donblair's primer, measuring turbidity means "measuring the amount of suspended solids in water -- solids that haven't fully dissolved". That is, "turbidity, an optical technique for assessing suspended solids in liquid -- is an important water quality parameter. Typically, light is shone into a liquid sample, and the amount of light scattered back out of the sample (off of particles suspended in it) is measured; the intensity of this scattered light is considered to be related to the amount of suspended solids in the sample." (reference)Learn more on the wiki page
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